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道家及老子思想研究(上)

2017年3期

徐小跃

  摘 要  道家是中国传统文化的一部分,道家的创始人是老子。读懂老子的《道德经》一定要说清楚“道”“无”“自然”“无为”等范畴。“道”有多义。“无”虽亦有多义,但主要是哲学义。哲学概念框架下的“无”,不但不是“没有”“不存在”的意思,而是表示的是“有”“多”的意思,从而体现着“无”的无限性和无规定性。“无”是道的存在方式。道是无,道是一,道是体;德是有,德是多,德是用。所以,老子的《道德经》又可称做《无有经》《一多经》《体用经》。而这一有着特殊义旨的“道德”又通过“自然”“无为”范畴得到强化。当然,只有在多个层面上去理解“自然”和“无为”,才能揭示出它们的丰富内涵及其意义。

  关键词  道家  老子  道  无  自然  无为

  分类号  B223.1

  DOI  10.16810/j.cnki.1672-514X.2017.03.001

The Research on Taoism and Lao Tsu’s Thoughts

Xu Xiaoyue

  Abstract   Taoism, created by Lao Tsu, is one of constituents of traditional Chinese culture. To understand it should begin with the full comprehension of categories of doctrines of tao , wu, zi ran and wu wei. The term tao has rich meaning. The term wu(literally nothingness), though also rich in its meaning, is primarily interpreted within the philosophical framework as existence and infinity rather than nothingness and non-existence, which embody its infinity and irregularity. The term wu is the existing way of tao. Thus, tao means infinity, oneness and essence while de does existence, ubiquity and function. Accordingly, the Lao Tsu’s Tao Te Ching also can be called as the Scripture of wu and You(infinity and existence), the Scripture of yi and Duo(oneness and ubiquity),and the Scripture of ti and Yong (essence and function). Furthermore, the term of tao te with the above meanings is enhanced under the category of zi ran(nature) and wu wei(inaction). Only by understanding the two categories at different levels can we unveil their rich content and significance.

  Keywords  Taoism. Lao Tsu. Tao. Wu. Zi Ran. Wu Wei.

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